The Indonesian nation is a religious nation. This is reflected both in public life and in the life of the country. In society-seen increasing splendor and solemnity of religious activity either in the form of ritual, or in the form of religious social. The religious spirit, reflected also in the lives of citizens that can be found in state documents about the state philosophy of Pancasila, UUD 1945, Guidelines, and the book Five-Year Plan as well as giving life and color to the state speeches.
In the implementation of national development such religious zeal sed adi stronger by established principles of faith and devotion to God Almighty as one of the principle of development. This means that all national development efforts and activities inspired, driven and controlled by faith and devotion to God Almighty as the supreme value which form the basis of spiritual, moral and ethical development.
Historically religious thread of breath can be traced since the fifth century AD, with the establishment of a patterned Hindu kingdom of Kutai in Kalimantan attached to the kingdoms in Java, among other Tarumanegara kingdom in West Java, and Purnawarman kingdom in Central Java.
In the century VIII style Buddhism became one of the characteristics of Srivijaya empire whose influence is wide enough to Sri Lanka, Thailand and India. In the kingdom of Srivijaya, the Borobudur Temple was built as a symbol of the triumph of Buddhism. The government also established the kingdom of Srivijaya Buddhist high school in Kilkenny which became the center of Buddhist studies as Southeast Asia at that time. Even some students from China who wish to deepen their Buddhist equip the first few years of prior knowledge in Kilkenny before continuing to India.
According to one source of Islam started to enter Indonesia since centuries VII through Arab traders who have long been associated trade with the Indonesian archipelago shortly after Islam developed in the Arabian peninsula. Religion Islam is almost evenly spread across the archipelago along with the establishment of Islamic empires like Perlak and Pasai Ocean in Aceh, the kingdom of Demak, Display and Mataram in Central Java, Cirebon and Banten kingdoms in West Java, the kingdom of Goa in South Sulawesi, keraj aan Tidore and Ternate in the Moluccas, keraj aan Banjar of Kalimantan, and others.
In the history of Indonesian struggle against Dutch colonialism many kings and the nobility who rose against the invaders. They are listed as national heroes, such as the Sultan Iskandar Muda, Teuku Cik Di Tiro, Teuku Umar, Cut Nyak Dien, Panglima Polim, Sultan Agung of Mataram, Imam Bonjol, Prince Diponegoro, Sultan Agung Tirtayasa, Sultan Hasanuddin, Sultan of Goa, the Sultan of Ternate, Prince Antasari, and others.
Pattern rule kingdoms mentioned above in general always have and exercise the functions as follows:
  1. General government functions, which is reflected in the title of "Sampean Dalem Hingkang Sinuhun" as the executor of the general government functions.
  2. The function of religious leaders is reflected in the title of "Sayidin Panatagama Kalifatulah."
  3. The function of security and defense, as reflected in the title of king "Senopati Ngalogo Hing." In the Dutch colonial period since the centuries XVI to mid-twentieth century the Dutch East Indies government also "set" the ministry of religious life. Of course the "service" is not religious strategy regardless of the interests of Dutch colonialism. Dr.C. Snuck Hurgronye, ​​an advisor to the Dutch East Indies government in his book "Nederland en de Islam" (Brill, Leiden 1911) suggested as follows:
"In fact according to the principle of the right, government interference in religion is wrong, but do not forget that the system (state administration), Islam has a number of problems that can not be separated to do with religion for a good government should not be totally negligent to arrangements. "
The main points of government policy the Dutch East Indies in the field of religion are as follows:
  1. For Christian groups are guaranteed the right to life and the sovereignty of religious organizations and churches, but must have permission for religious teachers, pastors and mission workers / zending in doing work in a certain area.
  2. For the indigenous population who did not embrace Christianity, all religious affairs and the implementation perigawasannya submitted to the king, regent and head of the other bumiputera.
Based on these policies, their implementation is technically coordinated by several agencies at central, namely:
  1. Matter of public worship, especially for those on the authority of the Department of Christian van Onderwijs en Eeredienst (Department of Teaching and Worship).
  2. About the appointment of religious officials indigenous population, about marriage, kemasjidan, haj, etc, into the affairs Binnenlandsch Departement van Bestuur (Ministry of Interior).
  3. Problem of Islamic Courts of Appeal or Hofd Islamietische voor Zaken is authorized for the Department van Justitie (Ministry of Justice). During the Japanese occupation condition is basically unchanged. The Japanese government established Shumubu, namely the central office that serves the same religion with the Kantoor voor Zaken Islamietische and establish Shumuka, religion residency office, by placing a prominent Islamic movement as a leader of the office. Placement figures Islamic movement is Japan's strategy to attract sympathy for Muslims to support the ideals of commonwealth Greater Asia under the leadership of Dai Nippon.
Philosophically, socio-political and historical religions of the Indonesian people already entrenched and rooted in the life of the nation. That is why the leaders and religious leaders always appear as a pioneer of the movement and the struggle for independence through political parties and other facilities. The struggle of independence movement through a long road since the Dutch colonial era until the defeat of Japan in World War II. Independence of Indonesia was proclaimed on August 17, 1945. At the time of independence the position of religion becomes more robust to the enactment of Pancasila as an ideology and philosophy of the country and the Constitution 1945. Precepts Belief in God Almighty who is recognized as the source of the other precepts reflect the character of the Indonesian people who are very religious and spiritual as well as give meaning to kemajuankemajuan to be achieved. The establishment of the Ministry of Religious Affairs on January 3, 1946, approximately five months after the proclamation of independence unless rooted in the nature and characteristics of the Indonesian people mentioned above as well as well as the realization and the translation of ideology Pancasila and UUD 1945. Juridical provisions on religion contained in the Constitution 1945 Chapter E of article 29 of the Religion of paragraph 1, and 2:
  1. State based upon belief in one supreme God;
  2. State guarantees freedom of each citizen to embrace their religious teachings and worship according to his religion or belief itu.Dengan thus religion has become part of the state system as a result of national consensus and convention dalam_praktek statehood of the Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and UUD 1945.